State security providers include – in addition to the police – the military, intelligence services, various guards and security units. How these agencies operate and what norms and procedures that characterize their practices are shaped by (often colonial) history, as well as the overall governance of the country in question. In post-conflict settings, militarized/control-dominated approaches often privilege repressive police tactics over approaches that may enhance police-community relations.
This article from El Salvador explains how the police is embedded into the machismo culture characterizing the El Salvadoran society, and the ways in which this hinders the introduction of COP.
The availability of resources and appropriate skills through quality training also play a critical role for police culture and practice.
The composition of the police an issue that needs attention. While the population in many contexts may be diverse, the police is often homogenous and generally male-dominated. You may read more about efforts to recruit more women in the police here. Additionally, a lack of ethnic representation and close relations between the police and the political class, can jeopardize the local conception of the police as an independent and trust-worthy institution.